Effects of weaning and syndyphalin-33 on expression of melanocortinergic appetite-regulating genes in swine
Cooper, T. A., Jenkins, S. J., L. Wojakiewicz, H. G. Kattesh, and C. J. Kojima.  2011.  Domest Anim Endocrinol. 40(3):165-72.

Syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) increases feed intake in sheep and recently weaned pigs. To assess the effects of SD-33 on hypothalamic gene expression, hypothalami were collected from unweaned pigs (n=19; 21±3 d of age) on day 0. Remaining pigs received an intramuscular injection of 0.5 ́mole/kg SD-33 (SD) or saline (VEH) and weaned into individual pens. On days 1, 4, and 7 after weaning, hypothalami were collected from subsets of pigs (n=8 or 9) within each treatment group. Expression of ́-opioid receptor (MOR) was less in SD pigs than in VEH pigs on day 1 and day 4, suggesting down-regulation of the receptor by SD-33. Expression of hypothalamic melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) at 1 d after weaning was increased in VEH pigs (but not SD pigs) relative to levels before weaning. Expression of AGRP was not significantly altered by weaning or treatment at 1 d after weaning. At 4 d after weaning, expression of AGRP was greater in SD pigs than in VEH pigs, but at day 7 expression was less in SD pigs than in VEH pigs. A strong positive correlation was noted between expression levels of MOR and MC4R across treatment and time. Treatment with SD-33 appeared to partially abrogate the effects of weaning on expression of two key appetite-regulating genes within 24 h. Effects of SD-33 appear to be mediated at least in part by the ́-opioid receptor and include actions on the melanocortinergic pathway.