Italian ryegrass herbicide resistance A Pinoxaden Resistant Population of Italian Ryegrass and Resistance Management Strategies in Winter Wheat in Tennessee, USA
Ellis, A. T., L. E. Steckel, C. L. Main, Marcel S. C. de Melo, D. R. West, and T. C. Mueller.  2010.  Weed Technology Jul 2010, Vol. 24, No. 3 (July 2010) pp. 303-309.

Abstract:
Italian ryegrass resistance to diclofop has been documented in several countries, including the United States. The purpose of this research was to screen selected putative resistant populations of Italian ryegrass for resistance to the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)–inhibiting herbicides diclofop and pinoxaden and the acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides imazamox, pyroxsulam, and mesosulfuron in the greenhouse and to use field experiments to develop herbicide programs for Italian ryegrass control. Resistance to diclofop was confirmed in eight populations from Tennessee. These eight populations did not show cross-resistance to pinoxaden. One additional population (R1) from Union County, North Carolina, was found to be resistant to both diclofop and pinoxaden. The level of resistance to pinoxaden of the R1 population was 15 times that of the susceptible population. No resistance was confirmed to any of the ALS-inhibiting herbicides examined in this research. Field experiments demonstrated PRE Italian ryegrass control with chlorsulfuron (71 to 94%) and flufenacet + metribuzin (84 to 96%). Italian ryegrass control with pendimethalin applied PRE or delayed preemergence (DPRE) was variable (0 to 85%). POST control of Italian ryegrass was acceptable with pinoxaden, mesosulfuron, flufenacet + metribuzin, and chlorsulfuron + flucarbazone (> 80%). Application timing and herbicide treatment had no effect on wheat yield, except for diclofop and pendimethalin treatments, in which uncontrolled Italian ryegrass reduced wheat yield.