Suspended pavement systems as opportunities for subsurface bioretention
Tirpak, R. A., J. M. Hathaway, J. A. Franklin, and E. Kuehler.  2019.  Ecological Engineering, 134: 39-46.

Trees supply numerous ecosystem services to the urban environment, including mitigating the urban heat island, improving air quality, and providing habitat for wildlife. However, due to the structural stability requirements of infrastructure such as sidewalks, roadways, and parking areas, urban soils are commonly characterized by high compaction levels, low porosity, and nutrient deficiency, often to the detriment of urban tree health. By transmitting surface loads to a compacted subbase, suspended pavement systems create a matrix of uncompacted soil that promotes tree health through increased root access to oxygen, water, and nutrients. Recently, interest has grown in making suspended pavement systems multi-functional by designing them to act as subsurface bioretention practices in ultra-urban areas where space may be limited due to concentrated development and high land costs. Despite this interest, only one study has tested suspended pavement systems in this application. Further, the study utilized lined installations to allow a controlled water quality assessment; however, this negated the ability to fully quantify runoff reduction. Two unlined suspended pavement systems designed to function as subsurface bioretention practices were installed in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA, in 2015 and monitored over 27-months. During that period, over 99% of runoff volumes were reduced by the free-drained north system, which completely captured runoff from 79% of storms. The underdrained south system reduced influent runoff by over 88% and captured all runoff from 83% of events during the study. Influent TSS concentrations were significantly reduced by the south suspended pavement system, though no other significant differences between influent and effluent pollutant concentrations were observed, presumably due to low influent concentrations. This study demonstrates the viability of field-scale suspended pavement systems in a stormwater management application and illustrates the hydrologic and pollutant removal capabilities of these systems to manage urban stormwater runoff.