Entomopathogenic bacteria in insect biological control
Grijalba, E., M. Hurst, J. Ibarra, J. L. Jurat-Fuentes, and T. Jackson.  2018.  Biological Conrol of Phytopathogens, Insects and Acari, Chapter 5, pp. 296-333, Edited by A. M. Cotes, Agrosavia, Bogota, Colombia.

This chapter reviews entomopathogenic bacteria that have been used in microbial control of insect pests and covers their identification, mode of action and aspects of their use in pest control. In general, entomopathogenic bacteria must be ingested and act by release of toxins and/or penetration of the midgut cells before invasion of the haemocoel to multiply in the insect cadaver. The Gram positive entomopathogenic bacteria are sporeformers and include the well known Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as well as insect pathogens from the genera Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus. The Gram negative entomopathogens are non-sporeformers and include isolates from the genera Serratia, Yersinia, Photorhabdus, Chromobacterium and others. Most bacterial entomopathogens can be produced by fermentation and have been amenable to mass production and commercialisation. Bt has been the most successful of all microbial controls with lepidopteran and dipteran active strains used in large scale pest control operations and toxin genes used for protection of transgenic crop plants. Bacterial biopesticides have also been the mainstay of organic crop production. While bacterial entomopathogens have been the most successful of all microbial control agents to date, the enormous range of bacterial diversity suggests that there are many strains and toxins yet to be discovered.