Sugar Esters
Pyo, S. H., J. Chen, R. Ye, and D. G. Hayes.  2018.  Biobased Surfactants: Synthesis, Properties and Applications (2nd Ed), D.G. Hayes, D.K.Y. Solaiman, and R.D. Ashby, Eds, Elsevier Press.  (in press)

Sugar esters, value-added products derived from inexpensive renewable feedstocks (sugars and fatty acids), are biobased and biocompatible surfactants employed in foods, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals. They also possess antimicrobial and other biological activities. Their market size is projected to be $74.6 million by 2020. Sugar esters are difficult to synthesize due to the poor miscibility of acyl donor and acceptor reactants and the challenges associated with water activity control during the time course of reaction and controlling the selectivity of the reaction. In this chapter, the catalytic and enzymatic syntheses of sugar esters in the presence of solvent and under solvent-free conditions are reviewed, in addition to properties and applications.