Terpenoids from weedy ricefield flatsedge (Cyperus iria L.) are developmentally regulated and stress-induced, and have antifungal properties
Jiang, Y., B. H. Ownley, and F. Chen.  2018.  Molecules, 23: 3149.

Ricefield flatsedge (Cyperus iria L.), a troublesome weed in rice production, actively adapts to ecological niches. In this study, terpenoids were identified as the dominant compounds from organic extracts of C. iria leaves. To understand the role of terpenoid production in plant development and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, the dynamics of terpenoid production at different developmental stages, and the regulation of these compounds by stresses were determined. Terpenoid production exhibited temporal and spatial specificity. During vegetative growth, the total concentration of sesquiterpenoids increased and reached a maximum at 70 d after germination, and then decreased until the emergence of inflorescence. Monoterpenoids were only detected from leaves 90 d after germination. During reproductive growth, the total concentration of sesquiterpenoids increased dramatically and mainly accumulated in inflorescences, indicating that the sesquiterpenoids were primarily produced in newly formed and actively growing tissues. The total amount of monoterpenoids, mostly accumulated in flowers, increased until 130 d after germination. Furthermore, accumulation of sesquiterpenoids in leaves was promoted significantly by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and drought treatment. Infestation by beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua, BAW) promoted the emission of total sesquiterpenoids significantly and induced the production of more monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids specifically. Furthermore, volatiles from C. iria leaves had an anti-fungal effect on Fusarium graminearum. The implications of our findings on the biosynthetic pathways leading to the production of sesquiterpenoids in C. iria as well as their potential as fungicides are discussed.