Nodulin Intrinsic Protein 7;1 Is a Tapetal Boric Acid Channel Involved in Pollen Cell Wall Formation
Routray, P., T. Li, A. Yamasaki, A. Y0shinari, J. Takano, W. G. Choi, C. E. Sams, and D. M. Roberts.  2018.  Plant Physiology, Vol. 178. pp. 1269-1283.

Abstract:
Boron is an essential plant micronutrient that plays a structural role in the rhamnogalacturonan II component of the pectic cell wall. To prevent boron deficiency under limiting conditions, its uptake, distribution, and homeostasis are mediated by boric acid transporters and channel proteins. Among the membrane channels that facilitate boric acid uptake are the type II nodulin intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of aquaporin-like proteins. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) possesses three NIP II genes (NIP5;1, NIP6;1, and NIP7;1) that show distinct tissue expression profiles (predominantly expressed in roots, stem nodes, and developing flowers, respectively). Orthologs of each are represented in all dicots. Here, we show that purified and reconstituted NIP7;1 is a boric acid facilitator. By using native promoter-reporter fusions, we show that NIP7;1 is expressed predominantly in anthers of young flowers in a narrow developmental window, floral stages 9 and 10, with protein accumulation solely within tapetum cells, where it is localized to the plasma membrane. Under limiting boric acid conditions, loss-of-function T-DNA mutants (nip7;1-1 and nip7;1-2) show reduced fertility, including shorter siliques and an increase in aborted seeds, compared with the wild type. Under these conditions, nip7;1 mutant pollen grains show morphological defects, increased aggregation, defective exine cell wall formation, reduced germination frequency, and decreased viability. During stages 9 and 10, the tapetum is essential for supplying materials to the pollen microspore cell wall. We propose that NIP7;1 serves as a gated boric acid channel in developing anthers that aids in the uptake of this critical micronutrient by tapetal cells.