Supply Chain and Logistic Optimization of Industrial Spent Microbial Biomass (SMB) Distribution as a Soil Amendment for Field Crop Production
Lambert, L. H., O. Shvlo, B. C. English, N. S. Eash, J. A. Zahn, and D. M. Lambert.  2019.  Resources, Conservation, & Recycling, Volume 146, July 2019, Pages 218-231.

Abstract:
This research formulates a capacitated facility location model to minimize the transport and storage cost of delivering Spent Microbial Biomass (SMB), a bioprocessing coproduct resulting from the production of 1, 3-propanediol, to farm fields as a soil amendment and fertilizer substitute. The analysis focuses on a bioprocessing facility in East Tennessee using corn as feedstock that transports SMB to agricultural fields. Stochastic programming and Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate the optimal distribution of SMB under farmer demand uncertainty. Storage facility numbers and capacities of designated locations are affected by farmer participation rate, and affect transportation costs. The results indicate that on-farm storage of SMB minimizes material transport and storage costs.