Soybean breeding for improved oil quality by selecting high oleic low linolenic, high yielding lines using single nucleotide polymorphisms to identify mutant FAD2-1A, FAD2-1B, FAD3A and FAD3C alleles
Willette, A., V. R. Pantalone, H. Bhandari, C. E. Sams, F. Chen, and V. R. Sykes.  2018.  Crop Science Society of America, ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting, November 4-7, 2018, Baltimore, MD.

Abstract:
Soybean oil typically contains 80-120 g kg-1 of linolenic fatty acids, causing rapid rancidity in vegetable oil. Several processes have been investigated such as breeding methods, extraction using metal chelates, and reaction methods using hydrogen, in producing more stable vegetable oil. Most soybean oil producers chose hydrogenation due to cost and odor eliminating capacity. Unfortunately, hydrogenated oils had startling impacts to human health, causing coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. In 2015 the FDA declared that partially hydrogenated oils were no longer generally recognized as safe. In order to accommodate the need for a superior quality oil, not requiring hydrogenation, the United Soybean Board’s standards were set at producing high oleic (>750 g kg-1) and low linolenic (< 30 g kg-1) oil. Alleles FAD2-1A, FAD2-1B, FAD3A, and FAD3C have been mapped to regulation of oleic acid (18:1) and linolenic acid (18:3) accumulation. Employing single nucleotide polymorphism’s (SNP’s) to indicate high oleic (HO) and low linolenic (LL) mutant genotypes, and confirming phenotypic response using gas chromatography soybean breeders can produce soybeans with more stable soybean oil. In 2017 a study comparing four genotypic classes of BC3F3 near isogenic lines with parents and checks was performed at two Tennessee locations. The test contained two replications of two row plots in a randomized complete block design at East Tennessee Research and Education Center and Highland Rim Research and Education Center. A yield test was performed on high oleic lines that were double mutant at the FAD2-1 loci but varied at FAD3A and FAD3C loci. Analysis using generalized linear mixed model GLIMMIX of SAS 9.4 indicated that no yield drag was associated with high oleic low linolenic lines containing quadruple mutant genotype when compared to checks and parents.