Phytophthora colocasiae from Vietnam, China, Hawaii and Nepal: intra- and inter-genomic variations in ploidy and a long-lived, diploid Hawaiian lineage
Shrestha, S, H. M. Kelly, K. H. Lamour, et al.  2017.  Mycological Progress.

Abstract:
Phytophthora colocasiae is an important pathogen of taro and is widely distributed. Our goal was to develop whole genome sequence and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to characterize historical and current populations from Hawaii (2010 and 2016, HA), historical isolates from Vietnam and China (2010, VN and CH) and current isolates from Nepal (2016, NEP). Seven isolates (VN = 2, CH = 1, HA = 1, NEP = 3) were sequenced (NCBI BioProject PRJNA378784) and compared using the reference genome of the closely related vegetable pathogen P. capsici. Genome-wide SNP analysis using 27,537 markers revealed genomes of diploid, triploid, tetraploid and higher ploidy. Ploidy varied within and between populations, with HA being primarily diploid, CH primarily triploid, VN containing diploid and triploid isolates, and NEP having predominantly triploid, tetraploid and higher ploidy. A total of 37 SNP markers were genotyped in 89 samples (grown in culture or directly from infected tissue) using targeted-sequencing. Analyses indicate a single clonal lineage dominated populations in HA from 2010 to 2016 and targeted-sequencing was useful to estimate ploidy. The implications for adaptation and evolution of P. colocasiae are discussed, as well as consequences for selection and breeding of resistant taro cultivars.