Genetic diversity of Phytophthora capsici recovered from Massachusetts between 1997 and 2014
Rocha, A., J. Hulvey, R. Wick, and S. Shrestha et al..  2017.  Mycological Progress.

Phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora capsici limits the production of cucurbits and peppers in the United States and is a growing threat to sustainable vegetable production in New England. Little is known about the genetic diversity of P. capsici in New England, and a total of 210 P. capsici isolates from 18 sites were genotyped using 46 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, revealing 85 unique and 34 repeated multi-locus genotypes. Both mating types were recovered from 7 of the 18 locations. Isolates with identical genotypes (clonal lineages) ranged from 2 to 16. Three clonal lineages were recovered from multiple sites within the same year, although none were recovered across multiple years. Bayesian clustering revealed individuals with a complex genetic cluster composition. This, coupled with a high outcrossing rate (mean t = 0.87) and no clear clustering in principal coordinates analysis, suggests outcrossing among the populations. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analysis indicate differentiation based on farm location and movement among farms may be infrequent. There was no obvious differentiation based on cucurbit, tomato or pepper hosts.