Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)
Banerjee, R., J. Hasler, R. Meagher, R. Nagoshi, L. Hietala, F. Huang, K. Narva, and J. L. Jurat-Fuentes.  2017.  Scientific Reports, 7(1): 10877.

Abstract:
Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a devastating pest of corn in the Western Hemisphere initially controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein (event TC1507). However field-evolved resistance to TC1507 was observed in Puerto Rico in 2007 and has subsequently been reported in a number of locations in North and South America. Early studies on Puerto Rico fall armyworm populations found that the resistance phenotype was associated with reduced expression of alkaline phosphatase. However, in this work we show that field-evolved resistance to Cry1Fa Bt corn in Puerto Rico is closely linked to a mutation in an ATP Binding Cassette subfamily C2 (ABCC2) gene that functions as a Cry1Fa receptor in susceptible insects. Furthermore, we report a DNA-based genotyping test used to demonstrate the presence of the resistant (SfABCC2mut) allele in Puerto Rico populations in 2007, coincident with the first reports of damage to TC1507 corn. These DNA-based field screening data provide strong evidence that resistance to TC1507 in fall armyworm maps to the SfABCC2 gene and provides a useful molecular marker for detecting the SfABCC2mut allele in resistant fall armyworm.