Enriching the starter diet in fish oil reduces adipocyte size in broiler chicks
Torchon, Emmanuelle, R. C. Beckford, S. Das, and B. H. Voy.  2017.  Current Developments in Nutrition, November 2017, 1 (11) e001644.

Abstract:
Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that enriching the perinatal diet in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be a tool with which to reduce adiposity, improve metabolic status and reduce the risk of childhood obesity. Hypothesis: The consumption of diets enriched in LC n-3 PUFA during the early post-hatch period of rapid adipose development reduces adiposity. Objective: The objective of this study to characterize the effects of a diet high in LC n-3 PUFA on performance and on the molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue development using broiler chickens. Methods: Broilers were used as a model organism because they rapidly deposit fat post-hatch and have similar metabolic features with humans. From seven to 21 d, Cobb500 broiler chicks (n=10/group) were fed isocaloric diets formulated using either lard (primarily saturated), canola oil (primarily monounsaturated), flaxseed oil (PUFA, enriched in alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3)), or fish oil (PUFA, enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3)), each at 8% by mass. Results: Body weight but not abdominal fat pad weight, was significantly (p=0.0327) lower in birds fed the fish oil diet (21.3gą5.5) compared to those fed lard (26.7gą5.9), but did not differ from birds fed flax and canola oil diets. Fish oil also significantly reduced abdominal adipocyte size compared to all other diets (p<0.05). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels, as a reflection of lipolysis, increased in birds fed fish oil diets as compared to lard diets (p=0.0017). Conclusion: Collectively, our data suggest that altering the type of fatty acids consumed during childhood may attenuate adipose deposition and reduce adipocyte size, which could have benefits in reducing childhood obesity.