Tennessee's Turfgrass Industry: Economic Contributions
English, B. C., R. J. Menard, K. L. Jensen, C. Boyer, and J. T. Brosnan.  2016.  Tennessee Turfgrass, December 2016/January 2017.

In 2013, Tennessee’s turfgrass industry had a total estimated economic contribution of $5.8 billion and created close to 67,000 full- and part-time jobs (includes industry expenditures plus wages). Among industries normally associated with turfgrass (i.e., sod producers, golf and landscape, lawn and sports turf services), golf contributes the greatest percentage of the estimated economic contribution at 75.8%, followed by landscape, lawn and sports turf at 20.6% and sod production at 3.6%. Among all turfgrass industry participants, homeowners contribute the greatest percentage of the estimated economic contributions. Most of the industry participants were optimistic about growth in receipts in the next five years, with lawn service projecting the highest growth rate at 12.2% annually, followed by landscapers at 4.4% and sod producers at 4.9%. Least optimistic were sports turf at 2.3% and golf courses at 0.7% annually.