New and emerging biobased surfactants: a review
Hayes, D. G.  2016.  107th AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo, Salt Lake City, 05 May 2016.  (invited)

This presentation will review three new biobased surfactants described in recent issues of the Journal of Surfactants and Detergents (JSD). First, in a series of two papers, Cai and coworkers have developed a nonionic surfactant formed from low molecular weight chitosan and an epichlorohydrin-derivatized form of dehydroabietic acid, a derivative of pine tree rosin (JSD 17:493 [2014] and 18: 463 [2015]). The derivatives lowered the surface tension of water to 36 mN/m and were effective emulsifiers. Second, Negm and coworkers have produced biobased surfactants formed through esterification of jatropha oil fatty acid ethoxylates and p-aminobenzoic acid, the latter derived from vanillin (JSD 18:1011 [2015]). The derived surfactants were effective as anticorrosion inhibitors on carbon steel. Third, Heidelberg and co-workers produced sugar-based surfactants that contained an amide linkage for use as an oil-based emulsifier through converting the primary OH group of methyl glucoside into an azide group, and then forming an amide linkage between the azide group and a fatty acyl derivative through the Staudinger coupling reaction (JSD 17:1141 [2015]). The surfactants possessed a high Krafft point temperature and tended to form hexagonal phases in solution; but, long-chain derivatives were capable of emulsifying water into oil.