New and emerging biobased surfactants: a review
Hayes, D. G.  2016.  107th AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo, Salt Lake City, 05 May 2016.  (invited)

Abstract:
This presentation will review three new biobased surfactants described in recent issues of the Journal of Surfactants and Detergents (JSD). First, in a series of two papers, Cai and coworkers have developed a nonionic surfactant formed from low molecular weight chitosan and an epichlorohydrin-derivatized form of dehydroabietic acid, a derivative of pine tree rosin (JSD 17:493 [2014] and 18: 463 [2015]). The derivatives lowered the surface tension of water to 36 mN/m and were effective emulsifiers. Second, Negm and coworkers have produced biobased surfactants formed through esterification of jatropha oil fatty acid ethoxylates and p-aminobenzoic acid, the latter derived from vanillin (JSD 18:1011 [2015]). The derived surfactants were effective as anticorrosion inhibitors on carbon steel. Third, Heidelberg and co-workers produced sugar-based surfactants that contained an amide linkage for use as an oil-based emulsifier through converting the primary OH group of methyl glucoside into an azide group, and then forming an amide linkage between the azide group and a fatty acyl derivative through the Staudinger coupling reaction (JSD 17:1141 [2015]). The surfactants possessed a high Krafft point temperature and tended to form hexagonal phases in solution; but, long-chain derivatives were capable of emulsifying water into oil.