Molecular Systematics and New Species of Nearctic Androprosopa Mik (Diptera: Thaumaleidae)
Pivar, R. J., and J. K. Moulton.  2016.  Proceedings: The XXV International Congress of Entomology, Orlando, FL, September 25-30.

The family Thaumaleidae, also known as seepage midges, is an uncommonly encountered, understudied family of aquatic Diptera compared to its sister group, the Simuliidae. The goal of this project was to assess species diversity of the Nearctic Thaumaleidae and determine relationships among them. The western Nearctic fauna of Androprosopa Mik is revised to include twenty-eight species, six of which are described as new to science. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine relationships between eastern and western Nearctic Androprosopa species and between the more structurally heterogeneous western species. Molecular sequence data from two nuclear protein-coding genes, Big Zinc Finger and Molybdenum Cofactor Sulfurase were acquired using the polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing methods. Analyses using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods were conducted. Resulting phylogenies supported monophyly of the western Nearctic species; however, relationships between the western and eastern species were unresolved, as were the relationships between the eastern Nearctic, western Nearctic, and Palearctic species. Based upon both structural and molecular data, six new species groups within the western Nearctic fauna are proposed.