Impacts of Oil Spill Disasters on Marine Habitats and Fisheries in North America
Alford, J. B., C. G. Green, and M. S. Peterson.  2014.  Impacts of Oil Spill Disasters on Marine Habitats and Fisheries in North America, J.B. Alford, C.G. Green, and M.S. Peterson (eds.). CRC Press/Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida.

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was one of the largest maritime disasters in the world (McNutt et al. 2011, NAS 2013). Even the most conservative estimate of leaked oil from DWH makes it the most extensive oil disaster ever to occur in a North American marine environment (see Figure 1, this chapter). An estimated 794 Million L to 1.11 Billion L of crude oil leaked into the northern Gulf of Mexico for 84 days. The estimated peak flow was 155,200,000 L/day (Ryerson et al. 2012). At its maximum, the surface expression of the discharge covered 62,159 km2 (Norse and Amos 2010). This response included the release of 2.9 Million L of the dispersant Corexit® (Place et al. 2010), which was applied at the surface and injected at the leaking wellhead 1500 m below the surface. Doubtless, there was great concern that ecosystem services to the Gulf of Mexico, and to human interests far beyond the region, could be dramatically curtailed (NAS 2013). At the 2010 American Fisheries Society (AFS) meeting in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a symposium was convened to address the response, recovery and research efforts initiated by state and federal agencies following this historic spill. Subsequently, the editors of this book organized another symposium at the 2011 AFS meeting in Seattle, Washington, this time bringing in experts researching the Exxon Valdez, Ixtoc I and DWH spills to discuss impacts to coastal fisheries resources following such large-scale oil disasters. This book contains recent research findings and reviews of spill related science as it pertains to North American marine fisheries and their habitats. There are three major sections: (1) ecotoxicology of oil and oil-related compounds to fishes, (2) impacts of oil and oil response measures to coastal habitats, primarily that of salt marsh vegetation, and (3) short- and long-term impacts of oil to fish and shellfish populations and communities.